U.S. President-elect Abraham Lincoln and his family leave Cincinnati, Ohio at 9:00 a.m., and begin their five-hour journey by train to Columbus, Ohio. It is day three of his thirteen day inaugural journey from Springfield, Illinois to Washington City.
Fifteen minutes into their journey, a live bomb is discovered in Lincoln’s train car. It is set to go off at 9:30am. It is disposed of safely, with no injury to its intended target.
Just like the previous two days, the train stops in many small towns along the way. Lincoln is greeted by large, enthusiastic crowds of well-wishers, and the occasional roar of celebratory cannon fire. In Columbus, a crowd of 50,000 are there to greet him.
After a military parade escort to the Ohio Statehouse, Lincoln addresses a joint session of the Ohio General Assembly. “It is true, as has been said by the president of the Senate, that very great responsibility rests upon me in the position to which the votes of the American people have called me,” he tells the legislature. “I am deeply sensible of that weighty responsibility.”
Afterwards, Lincoln meets with Ohio Governor William Dennison Jr. in his Statehouse office, where they discuss the events that have unfolded in recent months. Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina have already seceded. Texas looks like they may be next to leave. The divided state of Virginia has assembled two conventions in the last month: One to discuss secession, and the other that is Pro-Union. Today, former U.S. President John Tyler and former Virginia governor Henry Wise are meeting for the first time at Virginia’s secessionist convention. Four days earlier, the newly formed Confederate States of America had named former U.S. Senator Jefferson Davis as President of the Provisional Confederate Government, whose chosen capital is Montgomery, Alabama.
Around 4pm, a messenger arrives with news for Lincoln from the Electoral College, which had been meeting for the last two days in Washington City. U.S. General Winfield Scott had to reinforce the city so the meeting could go on as planned, due to fears that southern sympathizers would try to sabotage the vote.
Lincoln, a Republican, receives 180 electoral votes, all in the northern, non-slaveholding states, including California and Oregon. Southern Democrat John C. Breckinridge receives 72 votes from most of the southern states, along with the border state of Maryland; he does not win his own home state of Kentucky. Kentucky, along with Virginia and Tennessee, go to John Bell, a Constitutional Union Party candidate, who receives 39 electoral votes. Stephen A. Douglas, a northern Democrat, only receives 12 electoral votes, having only won Missouri and New Jersey. After the electoral votes are counted, current Vice-president John C. Breckinridge declares Lincoln the winner of the Election of 1860.
The message to Lincoln reads: “The votes were counted peaceably. You are elected.”
It is only the second day of President-elect Abraham Lincoln’s inaugural journey. After spending the night in Indianapolis, Indiana, Lincoln starts the day by addressing the Indiana State Legislature. He then boards the train with his wife Mary and three children (Robert, Willie & Tad). Their final destination for the day is Cincinnati, Ohio.
Lincoln had multiple stops the day before, and spoke at each one. He now finds himself to be a little hoarse, but that doesn’t stop him from greeting the crowds and providing brief remarks at each stop along the route. Hundreds of people line the tracks, shouting and waving flags and handkerchiefs as the train sweeps by.
In Cincinnati, the train route is blocked by people at the foot of Fifth Street. Military and police forces are brought in to clear the way. Cincinnati Mayor Richard M. Bishop introduces himself and welcomes Mr. Lincoln to the city. Amid the deafening cheers, Lincoln takes a seat in a barouche (a four-wheeled horse-drawn carriage with a collapsible hood over the rear half) drawn by six white horses. The procession makes its way through the main streets, and arrives at the Burnet House on the corner of Third and Vine Streets around 5:30pm. Lincoln had stayed here before, back in September 1859 when he was campaigning for the Ohio Republican Party. Now the band is playing “Hail Columbia” and “Star-Spangled Banner,” with a crowd of approximately 10,000 surrounding the hotel.
Addressing a crowd, Lincoln jokes that people had not come to see him; that they had come to see the President-elect of the United States. This is met with great cheers and applause. He continues to say that this is as it should be, even if his other opponents had been elected instead of him. He points out that no other country on Earth would have seen so many people gather to welcome its new leader, and that the country owed this to the free institutions which had guaranteed freedom of assembly.
With the slave-holding state of Kentucky just across the Ohio River from where he was standing, Lincoln gives assurance that he has no intention to interfere with the institution (slavery) where it already existed. He states that other than their different opinions on the expansion of slavery, there is no difference between them. He reminds them that he was once a fellow Kentuckian, and plans to treat them as the Founding Fathers had treated them.
Lincoln closes by addressing Ohioans, asking them to harbor no ill will towards their friends and brethren south of the Ohio River. He expresses his hope that the country will yet again come together as one nation.
As Lincoln heads back towards his room, he is rushed by people, throwing their arms around him, patting him on the back, and pulling on his arms.
Lincoln heads to a nearby location, where he addresses a large population of German immigrants. He declines to announce what course of action he might take towards the South when he becomes President. However, he does tell them that he will treat the Germans – who have been facing heavy discrimination – no better and no worse than Americans. He states his support for passing a Homestead Law, which would provide free Federal land to anyone who would want it; they would just need to work the land for five years before it would be theirs.
Mr. Lincoln returns to the Burnet House, where the grand hall has been decorated for the occasion. The papers state that he looks well and is in good spirits. Today he turns 52 years old.