Ambrose Burnside

This tag is associated with 32 posts

150 Years Ago: Monday, April 27, 1863

Joseph Hooker U.S. Commanding General, Army of the Potomac Source: Library of Congress

Joseph Hooker
U.S. Commanding General, Army of the Potomac
Source: Library of Congress

How does it look now?“, reads U.S. Commanding General Joseph Hooker. The telegram in his hands is from President Abraham Lincoln, who, like every Spring since the war started, is highly anxious and high strung now that Winter is behind them. With the warmer weather, the Army of the Potomac should be on the move. But at the beginning of each Spring they must deal with rising rivers from the melting snow and consistent rains, which often hinder their movements. The last major move the Union army made in the Eastern theater of war was at Fredericksburg last December, under U.S. Major General Ambrose Burnside. It had resulted in a major loss that has challenged the will of the people in the North to continue the war and has diminished the power of the United States on an international level. With Hooker now in charge, Lincoln has been sending communications that he no longer wants constant maneuvering of positions. He wants a battle and he wants it won. The Union needs a major victory.

It just so happens that Hooker has just begun moving his troops today, in what he considers a major plan to surprise C.S.A. General Robert E. Lee and the majority of his troops in the Fredericksburg area. Hooker is hoping to swing around Lee and cut off their supply lines from Richmond, and to turn the Confederate left flank. Hooker isn’t looking for a repeat battle at Fredericksburg; he was against the move back in December as he saw Lee’s troops on the high ground behind the stone wall protecting them. He has his own plans for success.

After days of waiting for the water levels to lower, Hooker’s Fifth, Eleventh and Twelfth Corps cross the Rappahannock and Rapidan Rivers above Fredericksburg. Union cavalry under Major General George Stoneman begins a long distance raid against Lee’s supply lines that Hooker is hoping will be successful and also preoccupy some of Lee’s troops.

The man who had once been a friend of U.S. Major General Ulysses S. Grant and had met with him on surrender terms back in February 1862 at Fort Donelson, Tennessee is promoted today by C.S.A. President Jefferson Davis. Major General Simon Buckner, who has spent the last six months in command of the District of the Gulf and has been in charge of the defenses in Mobile, Alabama, has been assigned command of the Department of East Tennessee. He will make arrangements to make the move to Knoxville, where he will work closely under C.S.A. General Braxton Bragg, who he has worked with before and dislikes as a General. In fact, Buckner had been one of many to publicly denounce Bragg’s performance during his Fall campaign in Kentucky last year, which resulted in Bragg’s army abandoning any future invasion of Kentucky even after a successful fight in Perryville in October.

Two days ago Grant had given specific orders for his men to be ready to take Grand Gulf, Mississippi fortifications in a strategic move to take the final target of Vicksburg. Yesterday Grant had arrived at U.S. Major General John McClernand’s camp only to find it highly disorganized and not at all working on his orders to prepare for the move today. McClernand had steamers and transports that were still scattered freely along the river and bayous, unable to support the move as planned. The two divisions that were to board the steamers were stuck on land. Instead of following Grant’s orders of preparation, McClernand staged a review of a single brigade for his visiting friend, Illinois Governor Richard Yates. McClernand’s men listen to a long and splendid motivational speech from Yates, followed by one from McClernand. At the end, McClernand has his artillery fire a salute to the Governor using ammunition that was to be saved to fight the enemy per Grant’s orders, as they were in very low supply. McClernand couldn’t have made a more obvious statement to Grant that he did not only disagree with his plan, but disrespected him as a leader. This was not new to Grant, who has been struggling with McClernand for months, with McClernand feeling that he should be the one in charge of the Vicksburg campaign. Though Yates has strong political power, Lincoln has the final say and he believes in Grant’s abilities.

Grant again sends specific, written orders to McClernand as to what he wants done today: McClernand’s troops are to board and await orders to move via steamers to a point opposite Grand Gulf. The Navy will reduce whatever batteries the Confederates have in place, and then McClernand’s men will be ferried to the Mississippi shore, where they are to unload from the steamers and storm up the bluffs, capturing the Confederate fortifications. Men are to take only three days supply of rations; Grant wants everyone traveling light and with only the bare necessities. He needs his men to be able to move quickly.

Instead of following Grant’s orders, McClernand again has other ideas. Instead of taking the troops via water, he wants to take an open road to the same point opposite Grand Gulf, which leads to a little village called Hard Times. Grant allows a reconnaissance party to see if roads are passable, and instead they find Confederate cavalry. As McClernand still does not have enough transports to board his men, Grant seizes the opportunity and orders the last two of McClernand’s divisions to drive the Confederates out and take the village of Hard Times. There will be no move today against Grand Gulf but at least the Union army can accomplish something.

Wanting to create a diversion, Grant turns his attention to his most trusted fellow officer, U.S. Major William T. Sherman, who is the furthest north and closest to Vicksburg. He sends a note to Sherman:

“If you think it advisable, you may make a reconnaissance of Haynes’ Bluff, taking as much force and as many steamers as you like. The effect of a heavy demonstration in that direction would be good so far as the enemy are concerned, but I am loath to order it, because it would be so hard to make our own troops understand that only a demonstration was intended, and our people at home would characterize it as a repulse. I therefore leave it to you whether to make such a demonstration. Publish your order beforehand, stating that a reconnaissance in force is to be made for the purpose of calling off the enemy’s attention from our movements south of Vicksburg, and not with any expectation of attacking.”

The orders Sherman receive give him a lot of leeway and decision making power. But Grant trusts him fully. Sherman immediately swings into action. To cover the road from Milliken’s Bend to New Carthage, he detaches a division under Major General Frederick Steele. Sherman reveals to Steele that “General Grant directs me to control matters at this end.” Sherman knows he has Grant’s trust and that fuels him; it gives him confidence in his own abilities, which is something he lacked at the beginning of the war.

The move Grant wanted to make today against Grand Gulf will have to wait until tomorrow. He only hopes that this delay has not given the Confederates time to repulse their attack. But in typical Grant fashion, he has still made moves and tried to take advantage of the delay as best he can. He understands that public and political perception is very important right now.

C.S.A. Lieutenant General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson sends another battle report to General Robert E. Lee, this time regarding the second Battle of Manassas (known as Bull Run in North) from last August. He once again praises the support of C.S.A. Major General and cavalry officer J.E.B. Stuart for his action on the field. His fondness for Stuart is very obvious; it’s a huge compliment coming from someone who does not often give such high praise so freely. Jackson closes with the following:

For these great and signal victories our sincere and humble thanks are due unto Almighty God. We should in all things acknowledge the hand of Him who reigns in heaven and rules among the armies of men. In view of the arduous labors and great privations the troops were called to endure and the isolated and perilous position which the command occupied while engaged with greatly-superior numbers of the enemy we can but express the grateful conviction of our mind that God was with us and gave to us the victory, and unto His holy name be the praise.

150 Years Ago: Sunday, April 26, 1863

Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson April 26, 1863 Source: Library of Congress

Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson
April 26, 1863
Source: Library of Congress

At a cozy farmhouse in Spotsylvania, Virginia, a photographer from Minnis and Crowell out of Richmond waits for his subject. At first, the subject – C.S.A. Lieutenant General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson – declines the request. But after a convincing talk from his wife Anna, Jackson obliges.

He puts on his best Confederate uniform, which was given to him as a present by C.S.A. Major General and cavalry officer J.E.B. Stuart, and arranges his own hair, which is unusual for him. He does not wear the old, worn VMI forage cap that he often wears in the field. With his hair curled in ringlets, Jackson sits down on a wooden chair in the downstairs hallway that has been set up for him. He sits very still, but just as the photographer takes the photo a strong wind from an open window blows in Jackson’s face, causing him to frown. The end result is a sternness, which his wife Anna dislikes because it’s not the spirited husband she knows and loves. But Jackson’s troops and others in the Confederate army who will later view the photo love it because they feel it represents who he is as a soldier and commander. Strong, determined, serious in battle. It represents the man who was “standing like a stone wall” against the enemy on the Manassas battlefield (known as Bull Run in the North) in July 1861.

In Bardstown, Kentucky, there is a lot of talk in the 2nd Michigan Infantry about the desertion of their brigade postmaster, Frank Thompson. Word has spread that Frank was not “Frank” at all; the gossip is that Frank is actually a young woman and ran off when her alleged lover, Assistant Adjunct General James Reid, was relieved of duty to take his very sick wife back home to Scotland where doctors believe she will be more prone to recover in her native land. Reid is a young, attractive man who had only recently married his wife Anna. He had originally been a Lieutenant in the 79th New York Highlanders, a primarily Scottish group, but was captured in the Battle of Bull Run (or Manassas) in July 1861 and spent six months in a Confederate prison near Richmond. In November 1862, after Major General Ambrose Burnside took command of the Army of the Potomac, the 79th was combined with the 2nd Michigan. It was there that Reid and Frank Thompson met.

The rumors are somewhat correct. “Frank” is indeed a female, (Sarah) Emma Edmonds. She is not the only female who has successfully enlisted in the army as a male. A few months ago a baby had been born to a corporal in a New Jersey regiment, who went into labor while on duty to the complete shock of her comrades. But Emma’s situation – whose real name only a few in the 2nd Michigan know – hits closer to home for them. While there is evidence that Emma and Reid were close, the nature of their relationship is unknown and Reid always remained devoted to his wife Anna. But the two had spent a lot of time together in his tent, alone; and given that Emma had deserted right when Reid left, it fueled speculation of a romantic relationship.

Though it is possible Reid’s departure played some part in Emma’s decision to leave, she is physically sick and emotionally drained. Her physical health has relapsed from the malaria she had contracted earlier in the year, and she felt that if she stayed in Bardstown that medical personnel would discover her secret. She had requested a medical furlough but was denied; she had no choice but to leave. So the week of April 12 she left Bardstown, by foot, and decided to go west to Cairo, Illinois, one of the bigger cities “nearby” – 230 miles away. On April 19 she saw her alias “Frank Thompson” listed on a desertion list, a crime punishable by death if caught. As she continues to Cairo, sick and in fear of being captured, she makes the decision that she will obtain women’s clothes once in town and return to living the life of “Emma.” She will seek out care and be faced with a decision on how to live her life as a female, something she has not done since she enlisted back in June 1861, almost two years ago.

150 Years Ago: Wednesday, December 31, 1862

Battle of Stone River (also known as Second Battle of Murfreesboro)Source: Library of Congress

Battle of Stone River (also known as Second Battle of Murfreesboro)
Source: Library of Congress

At 6 a.m. C.S.A. Lieutenant General William J. Hardee attacks U.S. Major General William Rosecran’s right flank before Union soldiers have finished eating their breakfast, completely catching the men off guard. 10,000 Confederates attack in one massive wave; several Union artillery batteries are captured without having time to fire a single shot. By 10 a.m. Hardee drives the Union troops back three miles, but U.S. Brigadier General Richard W. Johnson rallies his men despite his own brigade casualties of 50%.

Rosecrans races across the battlefield directing units, his uniform covered in blood from his friend and chief of staff, Colonel Julius Garesche, who was beheaded by a cannonball while riding alongside him.

A second Confederate wave is not met with the same unexpected shock. U.S. Major General Philip Sheridan had anticipated an early attack and had his division up and in line by 4am; Sheridan’s men repulse the Confederates in three separate charges. Unfortunately while they slowed the Confederate advance it comes at a heavy cost; all three of Sheridan’s brigade commanders are killed and more than one third of his men are casualties in just four hours of fighting in a cedar forest surrounded on three sides that is later named “The Slaughter Pen.”

Though the morning had been very successful for the Confederates, by the afternoon mistakes are made in communications and movements are made based on false reports. This allows Rosecrans to reposition his troops before an attack by C.S.A. Major General John Breckinridge. Breckinridge and his men move slowly and his first two brigades are assaulted in piecemeal attacks and suffer heavy repulses. Two more brigades arrive but the Confederate attack fails a second time. By 4:30 p.m. the fighting is finished for the day.

C.S.A. General Braxton Bragg’s plan had been to cut Rosecran’s line of communication, but instead it drives the Union troops to concentrate at one point: Nashville Pike. This gives the Union a stronger defensive position than when the day had started.

In Washington City, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln signs the legislation that paves the way for West Virginia to enter into the Union as the 35th state. The citizens of West Virginia will still have to vote for a constitutional amendment abolishing slavery, after which Lincoln will be able to submit an official document stating that West Virginia has met all statehood requirements.

Lincoln also meets with his Cabinet one last time to go over revisions he made to the Emancipation Proclamation the previous evening after listening to their suggestions the day before. Afterwards he meets with U.S. Major General Ambrose Burnside to discuss military matters; Burnside has been called to testify before Congress regarding his actions at Fredericksburg.

Outside of Vicksburg, Mississippi, U.S. Major General William T. Sherman starts to move his men towards Drumgould’s Bluff, but the fog is so thick that he calls off the movement and subsequent attack. He will have to wait another day.

Tonight Rosecrans holds a council of war to decide what to do next. Some of the generals feel that the Union has been defeated and recommend a retreat. But Rosecrans and two other generals disagree; the decision is made to stand and fight.

Though he has suffered 9,000 casualties out of 35,000 men, Bragg ends the day certain he has won a victory. He is convinced that the large number of captured Union soldiers means that Rosecrans has lost considerably more than his own numbers. The Confederate troops dig in, facing the new Union line. Bragg sends a telegram to Richmond, Virginia before heading to bed:

“The enemy has yielded his strong position and is falling back. We occupy  the whole field and shall follow him. God has granted us a happy New Year.”

Though they have spent the entire day in battle against each other, men on both sides – Confederate and Union – join together in singing “Home Sweet Home” on this last night of the year.

From his camp in Falmouth, Virginia, U.S. Corporal Elisha Hunt Rhodes writes a final entry in his journal for the year:

“Well, the year 1862 is drawing to a close. As I look back I am bewildered when I think of the hundreds of miles I have tramped, the thousands of dead and wounded that I have seen, and the many strange sights that I have witnessed. I can truly thank God for his preserving care over me and the many blessings I have received. One year ago tonight I was an enlisted man and stood cap in hand asking for a furlough. Tonight I am an officer and men ask the same favor of me. It seems to me right that officers should rise from the ranks, for only such can sympathize with the private soldiers. The year has not amounted to much as far as the War is concerned, but we hope for the best and feel sure that in the end the Union will be restored. Good bye, 1862.”

150 Years Ago: Tuesday, December 30, 1862

U.S.S. MonitorSource: Library of Congress

U.S.S. Monitor
Source: Library of Congress

In a storm off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, the U.S.S. Monitor crew evacuates onto the wooden ship U.S.S. Rhode Island at the direction of Commander John P. Bankhead. Just nine months earlier, the ship had been part of a revolution in naval warfare when the ironclad dueled with the C.S.S. Merrimack off Hampton Roads, Virginia, which resulted in a standoff. It was the first time two ironclads faced each other in a naval engagement. Today as the Monitor pitches and sways in the rough seas, the caulking around the revolving gun turret loosens and water begins to leak in the hull. The high seas continue to jolt the ship’s flat armor bottom, each time opening more seams. 46 crewmen make it onto the Rhode Island; the Monitor’s pumps eventually stop working and the ship sinks before 16 crewmen can be rescued.

At the U.S. White House, President Abraham Lincoln meets with his Cabinet members and provides them with a copy of his draft Emancipation Proclamation. Though he had already announced it back in September, he will release the final, binding document on the first day of the upcoming new year. He asks for their suggestions, which he will take into account. He also notifies them that he plans on approving the bill from Congress that will make West Virginia a state. After his meeting Lincoln sends a quick note to the Commanding General of the Army of the Potomac, Major General Ambrose Burnside, who is currently in the city: “I have good reason for saying you must not make a general movement of the army without letting me know.

Out West, U.S. Major General William T. Sherman concludes that resuming his attacks on the Chickasaw Buyou bluffs would be pointless. He meets with Admiral David Dixon Porter and plans a joint army-navy attack on Drumgould’s Bluff to the northeast, hoping that the steep bluffs will provide cover for his 32,000 men as they advance. They will proceed with the new plan tomorrow; Sherman has yet to hear anything from his commanding General Ulysses S. Grant, who was to support him with additional troops via a land route.

Outside of Murfreesboro, Tennessee, U.S. Major General William S. Rosecrans slowly approaches the main Confederate forces led by C.S.A. General Braxton Bragg with fighting at Jefferson, La Vergne, Rock Spring and Nolensville. Though the Confederates do a good job of slowing their advance, Rosecrans continues to move closer to the Murfreesboro Confederate stronghold.

John T. FordSource: National Park Service

John T. Ford
Source: National Park Service

This past March in Washington City, a former Baptist Church and short-lived opera house on 10th Street reopened it’s doors as Ford’s Atheneum, a music hall. Owned by successful theatrical entrepreneur John T. Ford from Baltimore, Maryland, it had been hailed a success by the local newspaper and President Lincoln had even paid to a visit to the hall in May. Around 5pm, a fire caused by defective gas meters breaks out in the cellar under the stage. Fed by the combustible materials of the dressing rooms and stage scenery, the fire rages well into the night, lighting the city skies. While there is no loss of life, nearby buildings to the north and south are also damaged. By morning only the blackened walls remain standing and the entire interior of the theatre is gutted. Ford’s loss, estimated at $20,000, is only partially covered by insurance. He will need to decide whether or not to rebuild his theatre.

150 Years Ago: Friday, December 26, 1862

The Hanging of the DakotaSource: Library of Congress

The Hanging of the Dakota
Source: Brown County Historical Society in New Ulm, MN

At 10 a.m. in Mankato, Minnesota, the thirty-eight condemned Dakota Indians sing and chant as they are led to the scaffolds. Three drumbeats signal the moment of execution, and hundreds of civilian men & women who have shown up to witness the execution cheer in celebration. It is the largest mass execution in U.S. history. The bodies of the dead are buried in a single mass grave at the edge of town. An additional 300 convicted Dakota Indians will remain imprisoned in Mankato.

In the House Chamber at the Capitol building in Jackson, Mississippi, Confederate President Jefferson Davis gives a long speech to the state legislators and citizens of the state he once called home at the start of the war. It is meant to rally its citizens and celebrate the successes the Confederacy has had under extreme circumstances where many felt the odds were against them. He closes with the following two paragraphs:

I can then say with confidence that our condition is in every respect greatly improved over what it was last year. Our armies have been augmented, our troops have been instructed and disciplined. The articles necessary for the support of our troops, and our people, and from which the enemy’s blockade has cut us off, are being produced in the Confederacy. Our manufactories have made rapid progress, so much is this the case that I learn with equal surprise and pleasure from the general commanding this department, that Mississippi alone can supply the army which is upon her soil.

Our people have learned to economize and are satisfied to wear home spun. I never see a woman dressed in home spun that I do not feel like taking off my hat to her; and although our women never lose their good looks, I cannot help thinking that they are improved by this garb. I never meet a man dressed in home spun but I feel like saluting him. I cannot avoid remarking with how much pleasure I have noticed the superior morality of our troops, and the contrast which in this respect they present to those of the invader. I can truly say that an army more pious and more moral than that defending our liberties, I do not believe to exist. On their valor and the assistance of God I confidently rely.

Harpers Ferry, Virginia Source: Library of Congress

Harpers Ferry, Virginia
Source: Library of Congress

Communications between U.S. Major General Ambrose Burnside and General-in-Chief Henry Halleck are fast and furious as cavalry reports possible Confederate movements near Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. This small but strategic city has continuously changed hands between the United States and the Confederacy. The reports make Burnside very nervous, as he had no idea that General Robert E. Lee had moved any of his troops after Fredericksburg, especially as far north as Harpers Ferry. Burnside sends a full Corps of troops led by Major General Henry Slocum to help protect the city that is currently protected by Major General John Adams Dix.

In the meantime, Confederate cavalry perform their reconnaissance on Harpers Ferry but take no action. There are no Confederate troops waiting to storm the city; it is merely a routine Confederate tactic to observe Union positions. Little did they know it would cause such a panic that Burnside would send over 10,000 men to guard a city that was in no way under attack.

150 Years Ago: Sunday, December 21, 1862

William "Willie" Wallace LincolnSource: Library of Congress

William “Willie” Wallace Lincoln
Source: Library of Congress

It’s Sunday and U.S. President Lincoln has spent the last week dealing with the loss at Fredericksburg and the near loss of some of his Cabinet members. He receives a brief note from friend and Illinois Senator Orville Browning reminding him of the West Virginia statehood legislation that Lincoln needs to review and preferably approve in order to admit West Virginia into the Union. It’s already been several days since the bill was passed by Congress and there is concern by many why the President has yet to address it. “A delay is a calamity to the Union cause,” Brown writes. But for Lincoln, it appears that he will not address the issue today. While his wife Mary is away in Philadelphia staying at the Continental Hotel, Abraham is at the White House with his youngest boy Tad; it would have been his son Willie’s 12th birthday today. While Mary couldn’t handle being in the house where Willie passed away ten months ago or to be near , Lincoln chose to stay, no doubt taking time to visit Willie’s preserved room as he often did to weep over the loss of his precious boy. No significant work will be accomplished today; the grief is too strong.

It seems to me now clearly developed that the enemy has two principal objects in view,” President Jefferson Davis writes to Trans-Mississippi Department commander General Theophilius H. Holmes from Vicksburg, Mississippi. “One to get control of the Mississippi River, and the other to capture the capital of the Confederate States. To prevent the enemy getting control of the Mississippi and dismembering the Confederacy, we must mainly depend upon maintaining the points already occupied by defensive works; to-wit, Vicksburg and Port Hudson.

U.S. Corporal Elisha Hunt Rhodes writes in his diary at camp near Falmouth, Virginia:

We are now in camp and trying to repair our damage. Notwithstanding our late defeat, we all have confidence in General Burnside. If his plans had been carried out we should have won a victory. We hope to do better next time we try to cross the river.

150 Years Ago: Saturday, December 20, 1862

Salmon P. ChaseSource: Library of Congress

Salmon P. Chase
Source: Library of Congress

This morning U.S. President Abraham Lincoln receives the resignation letter from an embarrassed Secretary of Treasury Salmon P. Chase. He now holds the resignations of Chase and Secretary of State William Seward in his hands. As he sits there with their resignations, one in each hand, he tells visiting New York Senator and friend Ira Harris that “I can ride now – I’ve got a pumpkin in each end of my bag.

He laughs it off; Seward and Chase might not get along, but they balance each other out. Lincoln refuses to accept either resignation. Lincoln knows how Seward is perceived to be in control of everything, but Lincoln knows that is not the case and values his contributions. Though Chase is untrustworthy in his lust for power and Lincoln is well aware that Chase has such strong ambitions to become President that he is even willing to switch parties to run against him in 1864, Chase has proven to be invaluable in the Treasury Department, where he has made it an efficient and organized “machine” and he has done an outstanding job selling war bonds and managing the finances of the U.S. government during a time of war. Neither man argues with the President’s decision and the rest of the Cabinet supports it. The “Cabinet Crisis” is officially over.

Confederate cavalry under Major General Earl Van Dorn raid U.S. Major General Ulysses S. Grant’s secondary – yet crucial – supply depot at Holly Springs, Mississippi, capturing the entire 1,500 man garrison and destroying ammunition and food. Combined with recent similar actions by Nathan Bedford Forrest’s cavalry in Tennessee, Grant finds his communications and supply lines with the North temporarily suspended. He stops his movement toward Vicksburg and decides to withdraw to Oxford, Mississippi. While his men ask him what they are to do, Grant responds “We had endeavored to feed ourselves from our own northern resources, but our friends in gray have been uncivil enough to destroy what we had brought along, and it could not be expected that men, with arms in their hands, would starve in the midst of plenty.” Grant sends troops and wagons to collect all the food and forage they can find for fifteen miles on each side of the road, along with “assisting in eating up what we left.

One of Grant’s generals is unaware of this development: U.S. Major General William Tecumseh Sherman, who is aboard the Forest Queen and leaving Memphis today with 20,000 men towards Vicksburg. They will stop at Helena to pick up 12,000 more. Sherman writes to his brother John, an Ohio Senator:

Of course the pressure of this force acting in concert with Grant must produce good results. Even if we don’t open the Mississippi, by the way an event not so important as at first sight, until the great armies of the enemy are defeated – we are progressing. I wish Burnside and Rosecrans were getting along faster, but I suppose the encounter the same troubles we all do…

The great evil is absenteeism, which is real desertion and should be punished with death. Of course I would have the wounded and sick well cared for, but the sick list real and feigned is fearful. More than one-half the paper army is not in the enemy’s country and whilst the actual regiments present for duty are in arrears of pay and favor, sick and discharged men are carefully paid and provided for. Unite with other and discriminate in favor of the officers and soldiers who are with their companies. The “absent and sick” should receive half pay because of the advantages they receive of fine hospitals and quiet residence at home. The “absent without leave” should be treated as deserters and in no event receive a dollar’s pay – clothing or anything else. In course of time we may get an army. Finance is very important but no use of discussing that now; we must fight it out if it devastates the land and costs every cent of the North…

I rise at 3 a.m. to finish up necessary business and as usual write in haste… I am very popular with the people here and officers and indeed with all my men. I don’t seek popularity with the “sneaks and absentees” or the “Dear People”…

Former U.S. Commander of the Army of the Potomac George B. McClellan writes to U.S. Brigadier General Fitz John Porter from the 5th Avenue Hotel in New York City. Porter has been recently arrested and court-martialed for his actions at the Second Bull Run battle in August (he did not follow orders to attack) and is awaiting a hearing. McClellan has always had a close personal relationship with Porter, who he considers his protege. Unable to keep his feelings quiet about the recent Fredericksburg defeat, he writes:

The monied men & the respectable men of this city are up in arms, their patience is exhausted & unless the President comprehends the gravity of his situation I see great danger ahead.

Burnside must have conducted his withdrawal very skillfully to have succeeded so well – poor fellow how I pity him! I have defended him to the best of my ability.

The sacrifice of Saturday was an useless one – nothing gained, not even honor. Banks ought to have gone to the James River, & to the last moment I hoped that it was so.

The future looks dark & threatening – alas for our poor country! I still trust in God & bow to his will – he will bring us victory when we deserve it. A change must come ere long – the present state of affairs cannot last.

I shudder, Fitz, when I think of those poor fellows of ours so uselessly killed at Fredericksburg!

McClellan also asks Porter if he wants him as a witness in front of the court, as McClellan is willing to go to Washington to defend his friend’s actions.

U.S. Major General Ambrose Burnside travels to Washington at Lincoln’s request; tonight he meets with him and Secretary of War Edwin Stanton to personally review his report on what happened on the Fredericksburg battlefield.

U.S. First Lieutenant Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. writes to his father back home in Massachusetts from Falmouth, Virginia:

After the inspiration of a night which would have been rather a nipper in your furnace-warmed house with double glass, passed here with a couple of blankets in one of the tents which I suppose General Halleck (whom may the Lord confound) would enumerate among the “luxuries” of the Army of the Potomac. I sit down to give you the benefit of my cheerfulness. U always read now that the Advertiser religiously as well as other papers and I was glad to see that cheerful sheet didn’t regard the late attempt in the light of a reverse. It was an infamous butchery in a ridiculous attempt in which I’ve no doubt our loss doubled or tripled that of the Rebs. However that’s neither here nor there. I’ve just been reading Mr. Motley’s letters to Billy (William) Seward. What a noble manly high-toned writer he is. I always thought his letters to you were more thoroughly what a man should write than almost any I ever saw. I never I believe have shown, as you seemed to hint, any wavering in my belief int eh right of our cause. It is my disbelief in our success by arms in which I differ from you & him. I think in that matter I have better chances of judging than you and I believe I represent the conviction of the army & not the least of the most intelligent part of it.

The successes of which you spoke were to be anticipated as necessary if we entered into the struggle. But I see no farther progress. I don’t think either of you realize the unity or the determination of the South. I think you are hopeful because (excuse me) you are ignorant. But if it is true that we represent civilization in its nature, as well as slavery, diffusive & aggressive, and if civilization and progress are the better things why they will conquer in the long run, we may be sure, and will stand a better chance in their proper province – peace – than in war, the brother of slavery – brother – it is slavery’s parent, child and sustainer at once.At any rate dear Father don’t, because I say these things imply or think that I am the manner for saying them. I am, to be sure, heartily tired and half worn out body and mind by this life, but I believe I am as ready as ever to do my duty. But it is maddening to see men put in over us & motions forced by popular clamor when the army is only willing to trust its life & reputation to one man.

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